ulcerative pododermatitis in parrots

Bumblefoot in Parrots: Symptoms, Causes, And Treatment

Bumblefoot is one of the most common foot problems experienced by parrots. All psittacines are prone to this condition, including budgerigars and cockatiels, but it’s more severe in larger parrots.

Bumblefoot is a bacterial infection and inflammatory reaction that causes painful sores and legions on the foot’s surface. The condition is caused by long periods of perching, a poor diet that lacks vitamin A, improper perches, and wounds that allow bacteria to enter. The most noticeable bumblefoot signs include limping and lameness. Antibiotics can be used to treat bumblefoot. You can also clear up the condition by using Epsom salts and improving your parrot’s diet. 

Bumblefoot in parrots is treatable, but it can become fatal if left untreated for too long. It can also be excruciating, and, eventually, your parrot won’t be able to stand on the affected foot at all.

What Is Bumblefoot?

Also known as ulcerative pododermatitis, bumblefoot is a bacterial infection that commonly affects parrots, especially larger, heavier parrots such as Amazon and hyacinth macaws.

Bumblefoot is an inflammatory condition that occurs on the surface of the soles. It can appear on one or both feet and affects the joints and bones.

Captive parrots are prone to bumblefoot because they spend more time standing still. There’s also usually something wrong with their cage setup, which increases their chance of developing bumblefoot.

Bumblefoot is a treatable condition. If detected and treated early enough, birds with the condition don’t usually experience long-lasting damage. However, if the infection is left to worsen, it can cause death.

Parrots that survive sometimes require leg or foot amputation. They may also experience persistent, chronic abscesses that are very painful. In the worst cases, their quality of life will be severely compromised.

What Does Bumblefoot Look Like?

Bumblefoot is characterized by hard, puffy scabs that look like small blisters. The scabs can be red, black, or brown. The foot may appear swollen, and the tissue can become inflamed.

Sometimes, bumblefoot manifests as a boil or welt on the skin’s surface. These are filled with pus and require draining to relieve the pressure and discomfort.

In the advanced stages of the infection, painful abscesses appear – sometimes as clusters on the skin. When the skin turns black, your parrot is seriously unwell and in dangerous territory.

As described by the Hagen Avicultural Research Institute, bumblefoot goes through 7 grades of infection:

  • Grade 1. The parrot develops a shiny, reddened surface on the foot and a small lesion appears. At this stage, there’s no apparent infection.
  • Grade 2. The underlying infection comes into contact with the surface lesion, and tendons can be seen through the skin.
  • Grade 3. Ulcerations appear on the footbed. The lesions are swollen and filled with pus and are rough around the edges.
  • Grade 4. A painful necrotic plug forms in the ulcer’s center.
  • Grade 5. Swelling and edema surround the area of necrosis. The foot and digits also become filled with fluid, making them appear swollen. At this stage, tendons and metatarsal pads also become infected.
  • Grade 6.  The digits are swollen, and the foot’s necrotic flexor tendons rupture. As a result, parrots may lose feeling in their digits.
  • Grade 7. Bone infection (osteomyelitis) occurs, eventually leading to death.

What Causes Bumblefoot In Parrots?

Bumblefoot occurs when bacteria, such as staphylococcus, get inside the parrot’s foot. This could be through accident, injury, or a simple cut or scrape.

As described by MSD Veterinary Manual, poor husbandry is the most common cause of bacterial infections, along with poor nutrition and unsanitary environmental factors. Other causes of bumblefoot include:

how do you treat bumblefoot in parrots?

Improper Perches

As parrots spend most of their time standing on their feet, poor-quality perches are a leading cause of bumblefoot.

Plastic perches with rough or sharp edges can easily cut the skin, allowing bumblefoot-causing bacteria to enter through the wound.

Similarly, rough pedicure perches or perches covered with an abrasive coating can penetrate the skin when parrots use them to file their claws down.

Parrots need natural perches that come in various widths, allowing parrots to exercise their feet and improve their grip. You must also clean perches regularly to prevent harmful bacteria from growing on the surface.

Wire Flooring

Similar to poor-quality perches, wire cages with sharp points can cause injury if a parrot steps on them. All hard, rough surfaces inside the enclosure should be covered with a softer material to protect the feet, such as newspaper, towels, or bedding.

This is also the case when parrots are trying to heal from the effects of bumblefoot. A hard surface may be too painful for parrots to stand on, so cover it with something easier for the parrot to stand on.

Overgrown Toenails

When a parrot’s toenails grow too long, they can penetrate the skin, allowing bacteria to enter through the injury.

Most parrots take care of their toenails by using a pedicure perch. However, in the absence of a nail file or if parrots cannot file their claws down for whatever reason, they rely on their caregivers to keep their toenails at a safe length.

Splinters

Something as simple as a splinter can cause bumblefoot. Bacteria only need a small access point in order to enter the skin and cause infection.

Splinters caused by poor-quality wooden objects inside the cage are just as harmful as larger cuts. While parrots enjoy wooden toys to chew on, choose wooden items that are made well and less likely to peel and splinter.

Vitamin A Deficiency

As described by Veterinary Research Forum, some forms of bumblefoot are caused by a vitamin A deficiency. Budgerigars are susceptible to this type of bumblefoot because the seeds they eat are naturally low in the vitamin.

Vitamin A deficiencies cause dry, flaky skin that lacks strength and elasticity. As a result, parrots with a lack of vitamin A in their bodies have feet that are more prone to cuts and injuries, providing easy access for harmful bacteria to enter.

Obesity

Obesity caused by poor nutrition and a lack of exercise makes developing bumblefoot more likely. Heavier parrots exert more pressure on their feet, resulting in broken skin, injuries, and pressure sores that erupt, leaving a hole for bacteria to penetrate.

Some parrot owners provide their birds with too many high-calorie treats, including fruit, popcorn, and fatty seeds. Niles Animal Hospital describes how parrots on an all-seed diet are more likely to gain weight quickly.

While seeds are fine in moderation, they should only form a small part of your parrot’s diet to prevent deficiencies.

Signs of Bumblefoot In Parrots

Bumblefoot is a serious condition that requires immediate treatment. If bird owners don’t know the signs, the infection gets rapidly worse, causing the parrot to deteriorate quickly and die. The following are the most noticeable bumblefoot symptoms in birds:

  • Limping
  • Lameness
  • Standing on one leg
  • Painful swelling on the foot
  • Sores, legions, or abscesses
  • Loss of appetite
  • Vocalizations, such as screaming and hissing
  • Refusal to let you near the foot
  • Overgrown toenails

Once the more obvious signs of bumblefoot, such as limping and lameness, become evident, the condition has already progressed to the dangerous stages, and the parrot will have had the infection for quite some time.

Therefore, as soon as you suspect that your parrot has bumblefoot, you’ll need to treat it to remove all traces of the bacteria before it spreads to other parts of the body.

How Do You Treat Bumblefoot In Parrots?

Bumblefoot never gets better on its own – it only worsens and spreads to other parts of the body. Early diagnosis and treatment are the best ways of ensuring your parrot gets better.

Once harmful bacteria get into the wound, bumblefoot develops quickly and causes a lot of pain and discomfort. To help clean your parrot’s infection, try these bumblefoot treatments:

Clean The Wound

Prior to bumblefoot developing, your parrot will have a cut, graze, scrape, spot, or skin irritation on its foot. If the infection hasn’t set in, you can prevent it from starting by washing the foot in a solution of warm water and an antiseptic solution.

The foot can then be thoroughly dried and treated with an antibacterial cream. Make sure your parrot’s environment is clean and dry to stop bacteria from entering the wound.

You might even need to bandage it up while the wound heals. Your parrot may not like this, so try to ensure it stays on. Repeat the cleaning process twice daily and monitor it for any signs of infection.

Antibiotics

Oral antibiotics and ointments can help control the infection and prevent it from getting any worse. Similarly, anti-inflammatory medications reduce foot pain and make the parrot feel more comfortable.

Vets commonly prescribe erythromycin or penicillin when the infection is severe enough. However, you’ll need to take your parrot to an avian vet, who can assess the severity of the condition and administer the most appropriate drugs to treat it.

Epsom Salts

Epsom salts are a natural and effective way to treat minor bumblefoot infections. To treat your parrot’s infection, follow these steps:

  1. Fill a sink with warm water and add Epsom salt to create a salt bath.
  2. Wrap your parrot in a clean towel, keeping the wings secure and the feet out. Don’t hold the bird too tight, or you may stress it out.
  3. Soak the affected foot in the solution for 10 minutes to loosen the ulcer’s necrotic plug.
  4. Try to remove the necrotic plug, teasing it ever-so-gently. If it starts to bleed or refuses to loosen, soak the foot for another 10 minutes.
  5. Try to loosen the necrotic plug again, taking note of your parrot’s stress levels. If it still doesn’t come away, leave it and try again another day.

The objective of removing the plug is to separate the infected skin from the healthy tissue underneath, which speeds up the healing process and removes traces of bacteria.

Nutritionally Balanced Diet

Vitamin A is one of the most essential nutrients parrots need to stay healthy. As well as bumblefoot, a vitamin A deficiency causes:

  • White patches on the tongue
  • Abscesses inside the mouth
  • Labored breathing
  • Excess oral mucus
  • Nasal discharge
  • Eye swelling
  • Depression
  • Diarrhea
  • Loss of appetite
  • Secondary infections
  • High hatching mortality
  • Faded. feather and skin coloration

As a result, providing a nutritious diet that’s high in vitamin A is essential to your entire parrot’s health, not just as a treatment for bumblefoot. Foods that are high in vitamin A and suitable for parrots include:

  • Mango
  • Papaya
  • Parsley
  • Carrots
  • Red peppers
  • Cantaloupe
  • Squash
  • Sweet potatoes
  • Broccoli
  • Collard greens
  • Turnip
  • Spinach

Incorporate these foods into your parrot’s diet alongside pellets, nuts, and a small selection of seeds to provide the vitamins and nutrients your parrot needs. Healthy foods will also keep your parrot at an acceptable weight, reducing the pressure placed on the feet.

How To Prevent Bumblefoot

Bumblefoot is easy to avoid with good husbandry. Providing a good cage set-up and feeding the right foods are the easiest ways to prevent your parrot from coming into contact with bumblefoot-causing bacteria.

As parrots stand on their feet for such long periods, it’s only fair that harmful food conditions are prevented, as they can seriously diminish the quality of your bird’s life. Therefore, effective bumblefoot prevention methods include:

what causes bumblefoot in parrots?

Provide A Clean Cage

Your parrot’s cage must be kept clean and sanitary to prevent harmful bacteria from growing.

Feces and spoiled food cover the bottom of the cage, which parrots stand in. If a bird has a small foot abrasion, they’re more likely to develop bumblefoot from a cage that hasn’t been sanitized.  

VCA Hospitals recommends that parrot cages should be scrubbed down at least once a week with a non-toxic disinfectant soap and hot water. Disinfectants should be left to air dry for 15 minutes before being wiped off. Brush the cage and rinse it with fresh water afterward.

Food and water dishes should also be cleaned in the same manner. All disinfectants must be removed from perches and toys before being used by your parrot; otherwise, these chemicals can get into open wounds and cause a different kind of infection.

Remove Synthetic Perches

As we’ve already mentioned, parrots need perches that are made from natural materials, such as wood. To prevent bumblefoot from developing, avoid synthetic materials, and remove all plastic perches and foot toys that can cut or penetrate your parrot’s skin.

Also, make sure that all perches inside the cage are the right diameter for your parrot’s feet. If they’re too wide, the foot will stretch too much to wrap around them. Perches that are too narrow put too much pressure onto the sensitive parts of your parrot’s feet.

Your parrot should be able to wrap its feet comfortably around the perch, but the forward-facing toes shouldn’t overlap the backward-facing toes.

Pedicure perches should never be positioned where parrots commonly perch, as they can scrape the skin from your parrot’s feet. Improper perch sizes are as harmful as wearing the wrong-sized shoes.

Trim Your Parrot’s Nails

To prevent your parrot from injuring itself, keep its nails trimmed down to a reasonable length. Some owners are comfortable enough to do it themselves at home, but you can also take your parrot to an avian vet to do it for you. Signs your parrot needs a nail trim include:

  • Long toenails
  • Avoidance of perches
  • More time spent on flat surfaces
  • Difficulty walking
  • Inability to grasp food, toys, or perches
  • Nails getting stuck on clothes and fabric
  • Scratches and scabs on your parrot’s skin where it itches itself

Pedicure perches allow parrots to keep their nails filed down, but they also cause foot injuries if they’re not positioned in the right place. If your parrot is prone to cuts and scratches on its feet, it might be safer to trim the nails yourself.

While there are many treatments available, bacteria spread to other parts of the body and cause secondary infections if you don’t act quickly enough. When left untreated, bumblefoot in parrots is fatal.